FUNGICIDE RESISTANCE
Fungicide Listing by FRAC Code

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FRAC CODE TARGET SITE OF ACTION GROUP NAME CHEMICAL GROUP COMMON NAME COMMENTS
4 RNA polymerase I PA-fungicides (PhenylAmides) Acylalanine Benalaxyl Single-ste inhibitor. Interferes with synthesis of ribosomal RNA. Systemic. Resistance and cross resistance well known in various Oomycetes but mechanism unknown. High risk.
RNA polymerase I PA-fungicides (PhenylAmides) Acylalanine Furalaxyl
RNA polymerase I PA-fungicides (PhenylAmides) Acylalanine Metalaxyl
RNA polymerase I PA-fungicides (PhenylAmides) Acylalanine Metalaxyl-M
RNA polymerase I PA-fungicides (PhenylAmides) Anilide Cyprofuram
RNA polymerase I PA-fungicides (PhenylAmides) Butyrolactone Ofurace
RNA polymerase I PA-fungicides (PhenylAmides) Oxazolidinone Oxadixyl
8 Adenosin-deaminase Hydroxy-(2-amino-) pyrimidines Aminopyrimidinol Bupirimate Medium risk. Resistance and cross resistance known in powdery mildews. Resistance management required.
Adenosin-deaminase Hydroxy-(2-amino-) pyrimidines Aminopyrimidinol Dimethirimol
Adenosin-deaminase Hydroxy-(2-amino-) pyrimidines Aminopyrimidinol Ethirimol
32 DNA/RNA synthesis (proposed) Heteroaromatics Isothiazolone Octhilinone Resistance not known
DNA/RNA synthesis (proposed) Heteroaromatics Isoxazole Hymexazol
31 DNA topoisomerase type II (gyrase) Carboxylic acids Quinoline-7-carboxylic acid Oxolinic acid Bactericide. Resistance known. Risk in fungi unknown. Resistance management required.
1 ß-tubulin assembly in mitosis MBC-fungicides (Methyl Benzimidazole Carbamates) Benzimidazole Benomyl Resistance common in many fungal species. Several target site mutations, mostly E198A/G/K, F200Y in ß-tubulin gene. Positive cross resistance between the group members. Negative cross resistance to N-Phenylcarbamates. High risk.
ß-tubulin assembly in mitosis MBC-fungicides (Methyl Benzimidazole Carbamates) Benzimidazole Carbendazim
ß-tubulin assembly in mitosis MBC-fungicides (Methyl Benzimidazole Carbamates) Benzimidazole Fuberidazole
ß-tubulin assembly in mitosis MBC-fungicides (Methyl Benzimidazole Carbamates) Benzimidazole Thiabendazole
ß-tubulin assembly in mitosis MBC-fungicides (Methyl Benzimidazole Carbamates) Thiophanate Thiophanate-methyl
10 ß-tubulin assembly in mitosis N-phenyl carbamates N-phenyl carbamate Diethofencarb Resistance known. Target site mutation E198K. Negative cross resistance to benzimidazoles. High risk. Resistance management required.
22 ß-tubulin assembly in mitosis Benzamides and thiazole-carboxamides Ethylamino-thiazole carboxamide Ethaboxam Protectant, non-systemic. No resistance detected to date. Low to medium risk. Resistance management required.
ß-tubulin assembly in mitosis Benzamides and thiazole-carboxamides Toluamide Zoxamide
20 Cell division (proposed) Phenylureas Phenylurea Pencycuron Resistance not known
43 Delocalisation of spectrin-like proteins Benzamides Pyridinylmethyl-benzamide Fluopicolide No cross resistance known to other fungicides. Resistance not known.
39 Inhibition of Complex I: NADH Oxido-reductase Pyrimidinamines Pyrimidinamine Diflumetorim Resistance not known
7 Inhibition of Complex II: succinate-dehydrogenase SDHI (Succinate DeHydrogenase Inhibitors) Anilide Pyracarbolid Resistance known for several fungal species in field populations and lab mutants. Target site mutations in sdh gene, e.g. H/Y (or H/L) at 257, 267, 272 or P225L, dependent on fungal species. Resistance management required. Medium to high risk.
Inhibition of Complex II: succinate-dehydrogenase SDHI (Succinate DeHydrogenase Inhibitors) Furan carboxamide Fenfuram
Inhibition of Complex II: succinate-dehydrogenase SDHI (Succinate DeHydrogenase Inhibitors) Oxathiin carboxamide Carboxin
Inhibition of Complex II: succinate-dehydrogenase SDHI (Succinate DeHydrogenase Inhibitors) Oxathiin carboxamide Oxycarboxin
Inhibition of Complex II: succinate-dehydrogenase SDHI (Succinate DeHydrogenase Inhibitors) Phenyl-benzamide Benodanil
Inhibition of Complex II: succinate-dehydrogenase SDHI (Succinate DeHydrogenase Inhibitors) Phenyl-benzamide Flutolanil
Inhibition of Complex II: succinate-dehydrogenase SDHI (Succinate DeHydrogenase Inhibitors) Phenyl-benzamide Mepronil
Inhibition of Complex II: succinate-dehydrogenase SDHI (Succinate DeHydrogenase Inhibitors) Phenyl-benzamide Salicylanilide
Inhibition of Complex II: succinate-dehydrogenase SDHI (Succinate DeHydrogenase Inhibitors) Pyrazole Sedaxane
Inhibition of Complex II: succinate-dehydrogenase SDHI (Succinate DeHydrogenase Inhibitors) Pyrazole-4-carboxamide Benzovindiflupyr
Inhibition of Complex II: succinate-dehydrogenase SDHI (Succinate DeHydrogenase Inhibitors) Pyrazole-4-carboxamide Bixafen
Inhibition of Complex II: succinate-dehydrogenase SDHI (Succinate DeHydrogenase Inhibitors) Pyrazole-4-carboxamide Fluxapyroxad
Inhibition of Complex II: succinate-dehydrogenase SDHI (Succinate DeHydrogenase Inhibitors) Pyrazole-4-carboxamide Furametpyr
Inhibition of Complex II: succinate-dehydrogenase SDHI (Succinate DeHydrogenase Inhibitors) Pyrazole-4-carboxamide Isopyrazam
Inhibition of Complex II: succinate-dehydrogenase SDHI (Succinate DeHydrogenase Inhibitors) Pyrazole-4-carboxamide Penflufen
Inhibition of Complex II: succinate-dehydrogenase SDHI (Succinate DeHydrogenase Inhibitors) Pyrazole-4-carboxamide Penthiopyrad
Inhibition of Complex II: succinate-dehydrogenase SDHI (Succinate DeHydrogenase Inhibitors) Pyridine carboxamide Boscalid
Inhibition of Complex II: succinate-dehydrogenase SDHI (Succinate DeHydrogenase Inhibitors) Pyridinyl-ethyl benzamide Fluopyram
Inhibition of Complex II: succinate-dehydrogenase SDHI (Succinate DeHydrogenase Inhibitors) Thiazole carboxamide Thifluzamide
11 Inhibition of Complex III: cytochrome bc1 (ubiquinol oxidase) at Qo site (cyt b gene) QoI-fungicides (Quinone outside Inhibitors) Imidazolinone Fenamidone Locally systemic. Resistance known in various fungal species. Target site mutations at cyt b gene (G143A, F129L) and additional mechanisms. Cross resistance shown between all members of the QoI group. High risk.
Inhibition of Complex III: cytochrome bc1 (ubiquinol oxidase) at Qo site (cyt b gene) QoI-fungicides (Quinone outside Inhibitors) Oxazolidinedione Famoxadone
Inhibition of Complex III: cytochrome bc1 (ubiquinol oxidase) at Qo site (cyt b gene) QoI-fungicides (Quinone outside Inhibitors) Strobilurin Azoxystrobin
Inhibition of Complex III: cytochrome bc1 (ubiquinol oxidase) at Qo site (cyt b gene) QoI-fungicides (Quinone outside Inhibitors) Strobilurin Dimoxystrobin
Inhibition of Complex III: cytochrome bc1 (ubiquinol oxidase) at Qo site (cyt b gene) QoI-fungicides (Quinone outside Inhibitors) Strobilurin Enestrobin
Inhibition of Complex III: cytochrome bc1 (ubiquinol oxidase) at Qo site (cyt b gene) QoI-fungicides (Quinone outside Inhibitors) Strobilurin Fluoxastrobin
Inhibition of Complex III: cytochrome bc1 (ubiquinol oxidase) at Qo site (cyt b gene) QoI-fungicides (Quinone outside Inhibitors) Strobilurin Kresoxim-methyl
Inhibition of Complex III: cytochrome bc1 (ubiquinol oxidase) at Qo site (cyt b gene) QoI-fungicides (Quinone outside Inhibitors) Strobilurin Metominostrobin
Inhibition of Complex III: cytochrome bc1 (ubiquinol oxidase) at Qo site (cyt b gene) QoI-fungicides (Quinone outside Inhibitors) Strobilurin Orysastrobin
Inhibition of Complex III: cytochrome bc1 (ubiquinol oxidase) at Qo site (cyt b gene) QoI-fungicides (Quinone outside Inhibitors) Strobilurin Picoxystrobin
Inhibition of Complex III: cytochrome bc1 (ubiquinol oxidase) at Qo site (cyt b gene) QoI-fungicides (Quinone outside Inhibitors) Strobilurin Pyraclostrobin
Inhibition of Complex III: cytochrome bc1 (ubiquinol oxidase) at Qo site (cyt b gene) QoI-fungicides (Quinone outside Inhibitors) Strobilurin Trifloxystrobin
21 Inhibition of Complex III: cytochrome bc1 (ubiquinone reductase) at Qi site QiI-fungicides (Quinone inside Inhibitors) Cyanoimidazole Cyazofamid Single-site inhibitor. Inhibits fungal respiration and energy production at Qi site. Limited systemicity. No resistance detected to date. Resistance risk unknown but assumed to be medium to high (mutations at target site known in model organisms). Resistance management required.
Inhibition of Complex III: cytochrome bc1 (ubiquinone reductase) at Qi site QiI-fungicides (Quinone inside Inhibitors) Sulfamoyl-triazole Amisulbrom
29 Uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation C5: uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation 2,6 dinitroaniline Fluazinam Stops cellular energy production. Protectant, non-systemic. Resistance not known: low risk, but fluazinam-resistant isolates of Botrytis claimed to exist in Japan in 2000.
Uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation C5: uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation Dinitrophenyl Dinobuton
Uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation C5: uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation Dinitrophenyl crotonate Binapacryl
Uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation C5: uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation Dinitrophenyl crotonate Dinocap
Uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation C5: uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation Dinitrophenyl crotonate Meptyldinocap
30 Inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation, ATP synthase Organo tin compounds Triphenyl tin Fentin Some resistance cases known. Low to medium risk.
Inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation, ATP synthase Organo tin compounds Triphenyl tin Fentin acetate
Inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation, ATP synthase Organo tin compounds Triphenyl tin Fentin hydroxide
38 ATP production (proposed) Thiophene-carboxamides Thiophene-carboxamide Silthiofam Resistance reported. Risk low
45 Complex III: cytochrome bc1 (ubiquinone reductase) at Qo site, stigmatellin binding sub-type) QoSI fungicides (Quinone outside Inhibitor, stigmatellin binding type) Triazolo-pirimidylamine Ametoctradin Not cross resistant to QoI fungicides. Resistance risk assumed to be medium to high (single site inhibitor). Resistance management required.
9 Methionine biosynthesis (proposed)(cgs gene) AP-fungicides (Anilino-Pyrimidines) Anilino-pyrimidine Cyprodinil Resistance known in Botrytis and Venturia, sporadically in Oculimacula. Medium risk.
Methionine biosynthesis (proposed)(cgs gene) AP-fungicides (Anilino-Pyrimidines) Anilino-pyrimidine Mepanipyrim
Methionine biosynthesis (proposed)(cgs gene) AP-fungicides (Anilino-Pyrimidines) Anilino-pyrimidine Pyrimethanil
23 Protein synthesis Enopyranuronic acid antibiotic Enopyranuronic acid antibiotic Blasticidin-S Low to medium risk. Resistance management required.
24 Protein synthesis Hexopyranosyl antibiotic Hexopyranosyl antibiotic Kasugamycin Resistance known in fungal and bacterial (P. glumae) pathogens. Medium risk. Resistance management required.
25 Protein synthesis Glucopyranosyl antibiotic Glucopyranosyl antibiotic Streptomycin Bactericide. Resistance known. High risk. Resistance management required.
41 Protein synthesis Tetracycline antibiotic Tetracycline Oxytetracycline Bactericide. Resistance known. High risk. Resistance management required.
13 Signal transduction (mechanism unknown) Aza-naphthalenes (aryloxyquinolines & quinazolinones) Aryloxyquinoline Quinoxyfen Resistance to quinoxyfen known. Medium risk. Resistance management required. Cross resistance found in Erysiphe (Uncinula) necator but not in Blumeria graminis.
Signal transduction (mechanism unknown) Aza-naphthalenes (aryloxyquinolines & quinazolinones) Aryloxyquinoline XDE-795
Signal transduction (mechanism unknown) Aza-naphthalenes (aryloxyquinolines & quinazolinones) Quinazolinone Proquinazid
Signal transduction (mechanism unknown) Aza-naphthalenes (aryloxyquinolines & quinazolinones) Quinoline 8-hydroxyquinoline sulphate
Signal transduction (mechanism unknown) Aza-naphthalenes (aryloxyquinolines & quinazolinones) Quinoline Ethoxyquin
Signal transduction (mechanism unknown) Aza-naphthalenes (aryloxyquinolines & quinazolinones) Quinoline Halacrinate
12 MAP/Histidine- Kinase in osmotic signal transduction (os-2, HOG1) PP-fungicides (PhenylPyrroles) Phenylpyrrole Fenpiclonil Resistance found sporadically, mechanism speculative (OS-2 kinase). Low to medium risk. Resistance management required.
MAP/Histidine- Kinase in osmotic signal transduction (os-2, HOG1) PP-fungicides (PhenylPyrroles) Phenylpyrrole Fludioxonil
2 MAP/Histidine- Kinase in osmotic signal transduction (os-1, Daf1) Dicarboximides Dicarboximide Chlozolinate Resistance common in Botrytis and some other pathogens. Several mutations in OS-1, mostly I365S. Cross resistance common between the group members. Medium to high risk.
MAP/Histidine- Kinase in osmotic signal transduction (os-1, Daf1) Dicarboximides Dicarboximide Iprodione
MAP/Histidine- Kinase in osmotic signal transduction (os-1, Daf1) Dicarboximides Dicarboximide Procymidone
MAP/Histidine- Kinase in osmotic signal transduction (os-1, Daf1) Dicarboximides Dicarboximide Vinclozolin
MAP/Histidine- Kinase in osmotic signal transduction (os-1, Daf1) Dicarboximides Isoxazole Drazoxolon
6 Phospholipid biosynthesis, methyltransferase Phosphorothiolates & Dithiolanes Dithiolane Isoprothiolane Resistance known for specific fungi. Low to medium risk. Resistance management required if used for risky pathogens.
Phospholipid biosynthesis, methyltransferase Phosphorothiolates & Dithiolanes Phosphorothiolate Edifenphos
Phospholipid biosynthesis, methyltransferase Phosphorothiolates & Dithiolanes Phosphorothiolate Iprobenfos
Phospholipid biosynthesis, methyltransferase Phosphorothiolates & Dithiolanes Phosphorothiolate Pyrazophos
14 Lipid peroxidation (proposed) AH-fungicides (Aromatic Hydrocarbons) & Heteroaromatics 1,2,4-thiadiazole Etridiazole Resistance known in some fungi. Low to medium risk. Cross resistance patterns complex due to different activity spectra.
Lipid peroxidation (proposed) AH-fungicides (Aromatic Hydrocarbons) & Heteroaromatics Aromatic hydrocarbon Biphenyl
Lipid peroxidation (proposed) AH-fungicides (Aromatic Hydrocarbons) & Heteroaromatics Aromatic hydrocarbon Dicloran
Lipid peroxidation (proposed) AH-fungicides (Aromatic Hydrocarbons) & Heteroaromatics Aromatic hydrocarbon Quintozene
Lipid peroxidation (proposed) AH-fungicides (Aromatic Hydrocarbons) & Heteroaromatics Aromatic hydrocarbon Tecnazene
Lipid peroxidation (proposed) AH-fungicides (Aromatic Hydrocarbons) & Heteroaromatics Aromatic hydrocarbon Tolclofos-methyl
28 Cell membrane permeability, fatty acids (proposed) Carbamates Carbamate Butacarb Multi-site inhibitors, systemic. No resistance detected to date. Low to medium risk. Resistance management required.
Cell membrane permeability, fatty acids (proposed) Carbamates Carbamate Propamocarb
Cell membrane permeability, fatty acids (proposed) Carbamates Carbamate Propamocarb hydrochloride
Cell membrane permeability, fatty acids (proposed) Carbamates Carbamate Prothiocarb
44 Microbial disrupters of pathogen cell membranes Microbial (Bacillus sp.) Bacterial fungicide Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum strain D747 Resistance not known. Induction of host plant defence described as additional mode of action for strain FZB24
Microbial disrupters of pathogen cell membranes Microbial (Bacillus sp.) Bacterial fungicide Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808
Microbial disrupters of pathogen cell membranes Microbial (Bacillus sp.) Bacterial fungicide Bacillus subtilis
3 C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51) DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Imidazole Imazalil There are great differences in the activity spectra of the different DMI fungicides. Resistance is known in various fungal species. Several resistance mechanisms are known incl. target site mutations in cyp51 (erg 11) gene, e.g. V136A, Y137F, A379G, I381V; cyp51 promotor; ABC transporters and others. Generally wise to accept that cross resistance is present between DMI fungicides active against the same fungus. DMI fungicides are Sterol Biosynthesis Inhibitors (SBIs), but show no cross resistance to other SBI classes. Medium risk.
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51) DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Imidazole Oxpoconazole
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51) DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Imidazole Pefurazoate
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51) DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Imidazole Prochloraz
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51) DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Imidazole Prochloraz-manganese
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51) DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Imidazole Triflumizole
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51) DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Piperazine Triforine
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51) DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Pyridine Pyridinitrile
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51) DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Pyridine Pyrifenox
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51) DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Pyrimidine Fenarimol
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51) DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Pyrimidine Nuarimol
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51) DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Pyrimidine Triarimol
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51) DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Azaconazole
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51) DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Bitertanol
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51) DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Bromuconazole
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51) DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Cyproconazole
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51) DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Diclobutrazol
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51) DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Difenoconazole
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51) DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Diniconazole
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51) DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Epoxiconazole
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51) DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Etaconazole
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51) DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Fenbuconazole
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51) DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Fluotrimazole
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51) DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Fluquinconazole
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51) DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Flusilazole
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51) DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Flutriafol
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51) DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Hexaconazole
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51) DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Imibenconazole
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51) DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Ipconazole
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51) DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Metconazole
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51) DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Myclobutanil
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51) DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Penconazole
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51) DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Propiconazole
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51) DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Simeconazole
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51) DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Tebuconazole
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51) DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Tetraconazole
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51) DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Triadimefon
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51) DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Triadimenol
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51) DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Triticonazole
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51) DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Uniconazole
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51) DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazolinthione Prothioconazole
5 ^14 -reductase and ^8-^7- isomerase in sterol biosynthesis (erg24, erg2) Amines ("Morpholines") (SBI: Class II) Morpholine Dodemorph Decreased sensitivity for powdery mildews. Cross resistance within the group generally found but not to other SBI classes. Low to medium risk.
^14 -reductase and ^8-^7- isomerase in sterol biosynthesis (erg24, erg2) Amines ("Morpholines") (SBI: Class II) Morpholine Fenpropimorph
^14 -reductase and ^8-^7- isomerase in sterol biosynthesis (erg24, erg2) Amines ("Morpholines") (SBI: Class II) Morpholine Tridemorph
^14 -reductase and ^8-^7- isomerase in sterol biosynthesis (erg24, erg2) Amines ("Morpholines") (SBI: Class II) Piperidine Fenpropidin
^14 -reductase and ^8-^7- isomerase in sterol biosynthesis (erg24, erg2) Amines ("Morpholines") (SBI: Class II) Piperidine Piperalin
^14 -reductase and ^8-^7- isomerase in sterol biosynthesis (erg24, erg2) Amines ("Morpholines") (SBI: Class II) Spiroketalamine Spiroxamine
17 3-keto reductase, C4-demethylation (erg27) Hydroxyanilides and amino-pyrazolinones (SBI: Class III) Amino-pyrazolinone Fenpyrazamine Low to medium risk. Resistance management required.
3-keto reductase, C4-demethylation (erg27) Hydroxyanilides and amino-pyrazolinones (SBI: Class III) Hydroxyanilide Fenhexamid
18 Squalene-epoxidase in sterol biosynthesis (erg1) Thiocarbamates & Allylamines (SBI class IV) Allylamine Naftifine Resistance not known in thiocarbamates. Pyributicarb has fungicidal and herbicidal activity in thiocarbamates. Allylamines are medical fungicides.
Squalene-epoxidase in sterol biosynthesis (erg1) Thiocarbamates & Allylamines (SBI class IV) Allylamine Terbinafine
Squalene-epoxidase in sterol biosynthesis (erg1) Thiocarbamates & Allylamines (SBI class IV) Thiocarbamate Pyributicarb
26 Trehalase and inositol-biosynthesis Glucopyranosyl antibiotic Glucopyranosyl antibiotic Validamycin Resistance not known. Induction of host plant defence claimed as additional MoA.
19 Chitin synthase Polyoxins Peptidyl pyrimidine nucleoside Polyoxins Resistance known. Medium risk. Resistance management required.
40 Cellulose synthase CAA-fungicides (Carboxylic acid amides) Cinnamic acid amide Dimethomorph Resistance known in Plasmopara viticola but not in Phytophthora infestans. Cross resistance between all members of the CAA group. Low to medium risk.
Cellulose synthase CAA-fungicides (Carboxylic acid amides) Cinnamic acid amide Flumorph
Cellulose synthase CAA-fungicides (Carboxylic acid amides) Mandelic acid amide Mandipropamid
Cellulose synthase CAA-fungicides (Carboxylic acid amides) Valinamide carbamate Benthiavalicarb-isopropyl
Cellulose synthase CAA-fungicides (Carboxylic acid amides) Valinamide carbamate Iprovalicarb
Cellulose synthase CAA-fungicides (Carboxylic acid amides) Valinamide carbamate Valifenalate
16.1 Reductase in melanin biosynthesis MBI-R (Melanin Biosynthesis Inhibitors - Reductase) Isobenzo-furanone Phthalide Resistance not known
Reductase in melanin biosynthesis MBI-R (Melanin Biosynthesis Inhibitors - Reductase) Pyrrolo-quinolinone Pyroquilon
Reductase in melanin biosynthesis MBI-R (Melanin Biosynthesis Inhibitors - Reductase) Triazolobenzothiazole Tricyclazole
16.2 Dehydratase in melanin biosynthesis MBI-D (Melanin Biosynthesis Inhibitors - Dehydratase) Carboxamide Diclocymet Resistance known. Medium risk. Resistance management required.
Dehydratase in melanin biosynthesis MBI-D (Melanin Biosynthesis Inhibitors - Dehydratase) Cyclopropane-carboxamide Carpropamid
Dehydratase in melanin biosynthesis MBI-D (Melanin Biosynthesis Inhibitors - Dehydratase) Propionamide Fenoxanil
P1 Salicylic acid pathway Benzo-thiadiazole BTH Benzothiadiazole Acibenzolar-S-methyl Resistance not known
P2 Unknown Benzisothiazoles Benzisothiazole Probenazole Resistance not known
P3 Unknown Thiadiazole-carboxamides Thiadiazole carboxamide Isotianil Resistance not known
Unknown Thiadiazole-carboxamides Thiadiazole carboxamide Tiadinil
P4 Unknown Natural compound: polysaccharides - laminarins Polysaccharide Laminarin Resistance not known
27 Unknown Cyanoacetamide-oximes Cyanoacetamide oxime Cymoxanil Resistance claims described. Low to medium risk. Resistance management required.
33 Unknown Phosphonates Ethyl phosphonate Fosetyl-aluminium Few resistance cases reported in few pathogens. Low risk
Unknown Phosphonates Inorganic Phosphorous acid and salts
34 Unknown Phthalamic acids Phthalamic acid Tecloftalam Mode of action generally not known. Use over several years has not revealed major resistance problems. Risk assumed to be low. Resistance not known.
35 Unknown Benzotriazines Benzotriazine Triazoxide Mode of action generally not known. Use over several years has not revealed major resistance problems. Risk assumed to be low. Resistance not known.
36 Unknown Benzene-sulfonamides Benzene-sulfonamide Flusulfamide Mode of action generally not known. Use over several years has not revealed major resistance problems. Risk assumed to be low. Resistance not known.
37 Unknown Pyridazinones Pyridazinone Diclomezine Mode of action generally not known. Use over several years has not revealed major resistance problems. Risk assumed to be low. Resistance not known.
42 Unknown Thiocarbamates Thiocarbamate Methasulfocarb Mode of action generally not known. Use over several years has not revealed major resistance problems. Risk assumed to be low. Resistance not known.
U6 Unknown Phenyl-acetamide Formamide Chloraniformethan Resistance in Sphaerotheca. Resistance management required.
Unknown Phenyl-acetamide Phenyl-acetamide Cyflufenamid
U8 Actin disruption (proposed) Aryl-phenyl-ketones Benzophenone Metrafenone Less sensitive isolates detected in wheat powdery mildew. Medium risk. Resistance management required.
Actin disruption (proposed) Aryl-phenyl-ketones Benzoylpyridine Pyriofenone
U12 Cell membrane disruption (proposed) Guanidines Guanidine Dodine Resistance known in Venturia inaequalis. Low to medium risk. Resistance management recommended.
U13 Unknown Thiazolidines Cyano-methylene-thiazolidine Flutianil Resistance not known
U14 Unknown Pyrimidinone-hydrazones Pyrimidinone-hydrazone Ferimzone Resistance not known. Reclassified from C5 in 2012
NC Unknown Diverse: mineral and organic oils, bicarbonates, material of biological origin Inorganic Potassium hydrogen carbonate Resistance not known
M1 Multi-site contact activity Inorganics - copper (different salts) Copper Bordeaux mixture Generally considered as a low risk group without any signs of resistance developing to the fungicides
Multi-site contact activity Inorganics - copper (different salts) Copper Copper hydroxide
Multi-site contact activity Inorganics - copper (different salts) Copper Copper oxychloride
Multi-site contact activity Inorganics - copper (different salts) Copper Copper sulphate
Multi-site contact activity Inorganics - copper (different salts) Copper Cupric ammonium carbonate
Multi-site contact activity Inorganics - copper (different salts) Copper Cuprous oxide
Multi-site contact activity Inorganics - copper (different salts) Copper Oxine-copper
M2 Multi-site contact activity Inorganics - suphur Inorganic Calcium polysulphide Generally considered as a low risk group without any signs of resistance developing to the fungicides
Multi-site contact activity Inorganics - suphur Sulphur Sulphur
M3 Multi-site contact activity Dithiocarbamates and relatives Dithiocarbamate Cufraneb Generally considered as a low risk group without any signs of resistance developing to the fungicides
Multi-site contact activity Dithiocarbamates and relatives Dithiocarbamate Dicamate
Multi-site contact activity Dithiocarbamates and relatives Dithiocarbamate Ferbam
Multi-site contact activity Dithiocarbamates and relatives Dithiocarbamate Mancozeb
Multi-site contact activity Dithiocarbamates and relatives Dithiocarbamate Maneb
Multi-site contact activity Dithiocarbamates and relatives Dithiocarbamate Nabam
Multi-site contact activity Dithiocarbamates and relatives Dithiocarbamate Propineb
Multi-site contact activity Dithiocarbamates and relatives Dithiocarbamate Tecoram
Multi-site contact activity Dithiocarbamates and relatives Dithiocarbamate Thiram
Multi-site contact activity Dithiocarbamates and relatives Dithiocarbamate Zineb
Multi-site contact activity Dithiocarbamates and relatives Dithiocarbamate Ziram
Multi-site contact activity Dithiocarbamates and relatives See: Zineb-ethylene thiuram disulphide adduct Metiram
M4 Multi-site contact activity Phthalimides Phthalimide Captafol Generally considered as a low risk group without any signs of resistance developing to the fungicides
Multi-site contact activity Phthalimides Phthalimide Captan
Multi-site contact activity Phthalimides Phthalimide Folpet
M5 Multi-site contact activity Chloronitriles (phthalonitriles) Phthalonitrile Chlorothalonil Generally considered as a low risk group without any signs of resistance developing to the fungicides
M6 Multi-site contact activity Sulphamides Sulfamide Dichlofluanid Generally considered as a low risk group without any signs of resistance developing to the fungicides
Multi-site contact activity Sulphamides Sulfamide Tolylfluanid
M7 Multi-site contact activity Bis-guanidines Guanidine Guazatine Generally considered as a low risk group without any signs of resistance developing to the fungicides
Multi-site contact activity Bis-guanidines Guanidine Iminoctadine
M8 Multi-site contact activity Triazines Triazine Anilazine Generally considered as a low risk group without any signs of resistance developing to the fungicides
M9 Multi-site contact activity Quinones (anthraquinones) Quinone Dithianon Generally considered as a low risk group without any signs of resistance developing to the fungicides
M10 Multi-site contact activity Quinoxalines Quinoxaline Chlorquinox Generally considered as a low risk group without any signs of resistance developing to the fungicides
Multi-site contact activity Quinoxalines Quinoxaline Quinomethionate
M11 Multi-site contact activity Maleimides Maleimide Fluoroimide Generally considered as a low risk group without any signs of resistance developing to the fungicides

Codes and comments courtesy of FRAC.

Chemical groupings follow classification as used in the Pesticide Manual 14th Edition.

 
© Crown Copyright The Food and Environment Research Agency 2009