FUNGICIDE RESISTANCE
Fungicide Listing by Mode of Action

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MOA TARGET SITE & CODE GROUP NAME CHEMICAL GROUP COMMON NAME COMMENTS FRAC CODE
A: nucleic acids synthesis A1
RNA polymerase I
PA-fungicides (PhenylAmides) Acylalanine Benalaxyl Single-ste inhibitor. Interferes with synthesis of ribosomal RNA. Systemic. Resistance and cross resistance well known in various Oomycetes but mechanism unknown. High risk. 4
A1
RNA polymerase I
PA-fungicides (PhenylAmides) Acylalanine Furalaxyl 4
A1
RNA polymerase I
PA-fungicides (PhenylAmides) Acylalanine Metalaxyl 4
A1
RNA polymerase I
PA-fungicides (PhenylAmides) Acylalanine Metalaxyl-M 4
A1
RNA polymerase I
PA-fungicides (PhenylAmides) Anilide Cyprofuram 4
A1
RNA polymerase I
PA-fungicides (PhenylAmides) Butyrolactone Ofurace 4
A1
RNA polymerase I
PA-fungicides (PhenylAmides) Oxazolidinone Oxadixyl 4
A2
Adenosin-deaminase
Hydroxy-(2-amino-) pyrimidines Aminopyrimidinol Bupirimate Medium risk. Resistance and cross resistance known in powdery mildews. Resistance management required. 8
A2
Adenosin-deaminase
Hydroxy-(2-amino-) pyrimidines Aminopyrimidinol Dimethirimol 8
A2
Adenosin-deaminase
Hydroxy-(2-amino-) pyrimidines Aminopyrimidinol Ethirimol 8
A3
DNA/RNA synthesis (proposed)
Heteroaromatics Isothiazolone Octhilinone Resistance not known 32
A3
DNA/RNA synthesis (proposed)
Heteroaromatics Isoxazole Hymexazol 32
A4
DNA topoisomerase type II (gyrase)
Carboxylic acids Quinoline-7-carboxylic acid Oxolinic acid Bactericide. Resistance known. Risk in fungi unknown. Resistance management required. 31
B: cytoskeleton and motor proteins B1
ß-tubulin assembly in mitosis
MBC-fungicides (Methyl Benzimidazole Carbamates) Benzimidazole Benomyl Resistance common in many fungal species. Several target site mutations, mostly E198A/G/K, F200Y in ß-tubulin gene. Positive cross resistance between the group members. Negative cross resistance to N-Phenylcarbamates. High risk. 1
B1
ß-tubulin assembly in mitosis
MBC-fungicides (Methyl Benzimidazole Carbamates) Benzimidazole Carbendazim 1
B1
ß-tubulin assembly in mitosis
MBC-fungicides (Methyl Benzimidazole Carbamates) Benzimidazole Fuberidazole 1
B1
ß-tubulin assembly in mitosis
MBC-fungicides (Methyl Benzimidazole Carbamates) Benzimidazole Thiabendazole 1
B1
ß-tubulin assembly in mitosis
MBC-fungicides (Methyl Benzimidazole Carbamates) Thiophanate Thiophanate-methyl 1
B2
ß-tubulin assembly in mitosis
N-phenyl carbamates N-phenyl carbamate Diethofencarb Resistance known. Target site mutation E198K. Negative cross resistance to benzimidazoles. High risk. Resistance management required. 10
B3
ß-tubulin assembly in mitosis
Benzamides and thiazole-carboxamides Ethylamino-thiazole carboxamide Ethaboxam Protectant, non-systemic. No resistance detected to date. Low to medium risk. Resistance management required. 22
B3
ß-tubulin assembly in mitosis
Benzamides and thiazole-carboxamides Toluamide Zoxamide 22
B4
Cell division (proposed)
Phenylureas Phenylurea Pencycuron Resistance not known 20
B5
Delocalisation of spectrin-like proteins
Benzamides Pyridinylmethyl-benzamide Fluopicolide No cross resistance known to other fungicides. Resistance not known. 43
C. respiration C1
Inhibition of Complex I: NADH Oxido-reductase
Pyrimidinamines Pyrimidinamine Diflumetorim Resistance not known 39
C2
Inhibition of Complex II: succinate-dehydrogenase
SDHI (Succinate DeHydrogenase Inhibitors) Anilide Pyracarbolid Resistance known for several fungal species in field populations and lab mutants. Target site mutations in sdh gene, e.g. H/Y (or H/L) at 257, 267, 272 or P225L, dependent on fungal species. Resistance management required. Medium to high risk. 7
C2
Inhibition of Complex II: succinate-dehydrogenase
SDHI (Succinate DeHydrogenase Inhibitors) Furan carboxamide Fenfuram 7
C2
Inhibition of Complex II: succinate-dehydrogenase
SDHI (Succinate DeHydrogenase Inhibitors) Oxathiin carboxamide Carboxin 7
C2
Inhibition of Complex II: succinate-dehydrogenase
SDHI (Succinate DeHydrogenase Inhibitors) Oxathiin carboxamide Oxycarboxin 7
C2
Inhibition of Complex II: succinate-dehydrogenase
SDHI (Succinate DeHydrogenase Inhibitors) Phenyl-benzamide Benodanil 7
C2
Inhibition of Complex II: succinate-dehydrogenase
SDHI (Succinate DeHydrogenase Inhibitors) Phenyl-benzamide Flutolanil 7
C2
Inhibition of Complex II: succinate-dehydrogenase
SDHI (Succinate DeHydrogenase Inhibitors) Phenyl-benzamide Mepronil 7
C2
Inhibition of Complex II: succinate-dehydrogenase
SDHI (Succinate DeHydrogenase Inhibitors) Phenyl-benzamide Salicylanilide 7
C2
Inhibition of Complex II: succinate-dehydrogenase
SDHI (Succinate DeHydrogenase Inhibitors) Pyrazole Sedaxane 7
C2
Inhibition of Complex II: succinate-dehydrogenase
SDHI (Succinate DeHydrogenase Inhibitors) Pyrazole-4-carboxamide Benzovindiflupyr 7
C2
Inhibition of Complex II: succinate-dehydrogenase
SDHI (Succinate DeHydrogenase Inhibitors) Pyrazole-4-carboxamide Bixafen 7
C2
Inhibition of Complex II: succinate-dehydrogenase
SDHI (Succinate DeHydrogenase Inhibitors) Pyrazole-4-carboxamide Fluxapyroxad 7
C2
Inhibition of Complex II: succinate-dehydrogenase
SDHI (Succinate DeHydrogenase Inhibitors) Pyrazole-4-carboxamide Furametpyr 7
C2
Inhibition of Complex II: succinate-dehydrogenase
SDHI (Succinate DeHydrogenase Inhibitors) Pyrazole-4-carboxamide Isopyrazam 7
C2
Inhibition of Complex II: succinate-dehydrogenase
SDHI (Succinate DeHydrogenase Inhibitors) Pyrazole-4-carboxamide Penflufen 7
C2
Inhibition of Complex II: succinate-dehydrogenase
SDHI (Succinate DeHydrogenase Inhibitors) Pyrazole-4-carboxamide Penthiopyrad 7
C2
Inhibition of Complex II: succinate-dehydrogenase
SDHI (Succinate DeHydrogenase Inhibitors) Pyridine carboxamide Boscalid 7
C2
Inhibition of Complex II: succinate-dehydrogenase
SDHI (Succinate DeHydrogenase Inhibitors) Pyridinyl-ethyl benzamide Fluopyram 7
C2
Inhibition of Complex II: succinate-dehydrogenase
SDHI (Succinate DeHydrogenase Inhibitors) Thiazole carboxamide Thifluzamide 7
C3
Inhibition of Complex III: cytochrome bc1 (ubiquinol oxidase) at Qo site (cyt b gene)
QoI-fungicides (Quinone outside Inhibitors) Imidazolinone Fenamidone Locally systemic. Resistance known in various fungal species. Target site mutations at cyt b gene (G143A, F129L) and additional mechanisms. Cross resistance shown between all members of the QoI group. High risk. 11
C3
Inhibition of Complex III: cytochrome bc1 (ubiquinol oxidase) at Qo site (cyt b gene)
QoI-fungicides (Quinone outside Inhibitors) Oxazolidinedione Famoxadone 11
C3
Inhibition of Complex III: cytochrome bc1 (ubiquinol oxidase) at Qo site (cyt b gene)
QoI-fungicides (Quinone outside Inhibitors) Strobilurin Azoxystrobin 11
C3
Inhibition of Complex III: cytochrome bc1 (ubiquinol oxidase) at Qo site (cyt b gene)
QoI-fungicides (Quinone outside Inhibitors) Strobilurin Dimoxystrobin 11
C3
Inhibition of Complex III: cytochrome bc1 (ubiquinol oxidase) at Qo site (cyt b gene)
QoI-fungicides (Quinone outside Inhibitors) Strobilurin Enestrobin 11
C3
Inhibition of Complex III: cytochrome bc1 (ubiquinol oxidase) at Qo site (cyt b gene)
QoI-fungicides (Quinone outside Inhibitors) Strobilurin Fluoxastrobin 11
C3
Inhibition of Complex III: cytochrome bc1 (ubiquinol oxidase) at Qo site (cyt b gene)
QoI-fungicides (Quinone outside Inhibitors) Strobilurin Kresoxim-methyl 11
C3
Inhibition of Complex III: cytochrome bc1 (ubiquinol oxidase) at Qo site (cyt b gene)
QoI-fungicides (Quinone outside Inhibitors) Strobilurin Metominostrobin 11
C3
Inhibition of Complex III: cytochrome bc1 (ubiquinol oxidase) at Qo site (cyt b gene)
QoI-fungicides (Quinone outside Inhibitors) Strobilurin Orysastrobin 11
C3
Inhibition of Complex III: cytochrome bc1 (ubiquinol oxidase) at Qo site (cyt b gene)
QoI-fungicides (Quinone outside Inhibitors) Strobilurin Picoxystrobin 11
C3
Inhibition of Complex III: cytochrome bc1 (ubiquinol oxidase) at Qo site (cyt b gene)
QoI-fungicides (Quinone outside Inhibitors) Strobilurin Pyraclostrobin 11
C3
Inhibition of Complex III: cytochrome bc1 (ubiquinol oxidase) at Qo site (cyt b gene)
QoI-fungicides (Quinone outside Inhibitors) Strobilurin Trifloxystrobin 11
C4
Inhibition of Complex III: cytochrome bc1 (ubiquinone reductase) at Qi site
QiI-fungicides (Quinone inside Inhibitors) Cyanoimidazole Cyazofamid Single-site inhibitor. Inhibits fungal respiration and energy production at Qi site. Limited systemicity. No resistance detected to date. Resistance risk unknown but assumed to be medium to high (mutations at target site known in model organisms). Resistance management required. 21
C4
Inhibition of Complex III: cytochrome bc1 (ubiquinone reductase) at Qi site
QiI-fungicides (Quinone inside Inhibitors) Sulfamoyl-triazole Amisulbrom 21
C5
Uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation
C5: uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation 2,6 dinitroaniline Fluazinam Stops cellular energy production. Protectant, non-systemic. Resistance not known: low risk, but fluazinam-resistant isolates of Botrytis claimed to exist in Japan in 2000. 29
C5
Uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation
C5: uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation Dinitrophenyl Dinobuton 29
C5
Uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation
C5: uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation Dinitrophenyl crotonate Binapacryl 29
C5
Uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation
C5: uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation Dinitrophenyl crotonate Dinocap 29
C5
Uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation
C5: uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation Dinitrophenyl crotonate Meptyldinocap 29
C6
Inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation, ATP synthase
Organo tin compounds Triphenyl tin Fentin Some resistance cases known. Low to medium risk. 30
C6
Inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation, ATP synthase
Organo tin compounds Triphenyl tin Fentin acetate 30
C6
Inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation, ATP synthase
Organo tin compounds Triphenyl tin Fentin hydroxide 30
C7
ATP production (proposed)
Thiophene-carboxamides Thiophene-carboxamide Silthiofam Resistance reported. Risk low 38
C8
Complex III: cytochrome bc1 (ubiquinone reductase) at Qo site, stigmatellin binding sub-type)
QoSI fungicides (Quinone outside Inhibitor, stigmatellin binding type) Triazolo-pirimidylamine Ametoctradin Not cross resistant to QoI fungicides. Resistance risk assumed to be medium to high (single site inhibitor). Resistance management required. 45
D: amino acids and protein synthesis D1
Methionine biosynthesis (proposed)(cgs gene)
AP-fungicides (Anilino-Pyrimidines) Anilino-pyrimidine Cyprodinil Resistance known in Botrytis and Venturia, sporadically in Oculimacula. Medium risk. 9
D1
Methionine biosynthesis (proposed)(cgs gene)
AP-fungicides (Anilino-Pyrimidines) Anilino-pyrimidine Mepanipyrim 9
D1
Methionine biosynthesis (proposed)(cgs gene)
AP-fungicides (Anilino-Pyrimidines) Anilino-pyrimidine Pyrimethanil 9
D2
Protein synthesis
Enopyranuronic acid antibiotic Enopyranuronic acid antibiotic Blasticidin-S Low to medium risk. Resistance management required. 23
D3
Protein synthesis
Hexopyranosyl antibiotic Hexopyranosyl antibiotic Kasugamycin Resistance known in fungal and bacterial (P. glumae) pathogens. Medium risk. Resistance management required. 24
D4
Protein synthesis
Glucopyranosyl antibiotic Glucopyranosyl antibiotic Streptomycin Bactericide. Resistance known. High risk. Resistance management required. 25
D5
Protein synthesis
Tetracycline antibiotic Tetracycline Oxytetracycline Bactericide. Resistance known. High risk. Resistance management required. 41
E: signal transduction E1
Signal transduction (mechanism unknown)
Aza-naphthalenes (aryloxyquinolines & quinazolinones) Aryloxyquinoline Quinoxyfen Resistance to quinoxyfen known. Medium risk. Resistance management required. Cross resistance found in Erysiphe (Uncinula) necator but not in Blumeria graminis. 13
E1
Signal transduction (mechanism unknown)
Aza-naphthalenes (aryloxyquinolines & quinazolinones) Aryloxyquinoline XDE-795 13
E1
Signal transduction (mechanism unknown)
Aza-naphthalenes (aryloxyquinolines & quinazolinones) Quinazolinone Proquinazid 13
E1
Signal transduction (mechanism unknown)
Aza-naphthalenes (aryloxyquinolines & quinazolinones) Quinoline 8-hydroxyquinoline sulphate 13
E1
Signal transduction (mechanism unknown)
Aza-naphthalenes (aryloxyquinolines & quinazolinones) Quinoline Ethoxyquin 13
E1
Signal transduction (mechanism unknown)
Aza-naphthalenes (aryloxyquinolines & quinazolinones) Quinoline Halacrinate 13
E2
MAP/Histidine- Kinase in osmotic signal transduction (os-2, HOG1)
PP-fungicides (PhenylPyrroles) Phenylpyrrole Fenpiclonil Resistance found sporadically, mechanism speculative (OS-2 kinase). Low to medium risk. Resistance management required. 12
E2
MAP/Histidine- Kinase in osmotic signal transduction (os-2, HOG1)
PP-fungicides (PhenylPyrroles) Phenylpyrrole Fludioxonil 12
E3
MAP/Histidine- Kinase in osmotic signal transduction (os-1, Daf1)
Dicarboximides Dicarboximide Chlozolinate Resistance common in Botrytis and some other pathogens. Several mutations in OS-1, mostly I365S. Cross resistance common between the group members. Medium to high risk. 2
E3
MAP/Histidine- Kinase in osmotic signal transduction (os-1, Daf1)
Dicarboximides Dicarboximide Iprodione 2
E3
MAP/Histidine- Kinase in osmotic signal transduction (os-1, Daf1)
Dicarboximides Dicarboximide Procymidone 2
E3
MAP/Histidine- Kinase in osmotic signal transduction (os-1, Daf1)
Dicarboximides Dicarboximide Vinclozolin 2
E3
MAP/Histidine- Kinase in osmotic signal transduction (os-1, Daf1)
Dicarboximides Isoxazole Drazoxolon 2
F: lipid synthesis and membrane integrity F2
Phospholipid biosynthesis, methyltransferase
Phosphorothiolates & Dithiolanes Dithiolane Isoprothiolane Resistance known for specific fungi. Low to medium risk. Resistance management required if used for risky pathogens. 6
F2
Phospholipid biosynthesis, methyltransferase
Phosphorothiolates & Dithiolanes Phosphorothiolate Edifenphos 6
F2
Phospholipid biosynthesis, methyltransferase
Phosphorothiolates & Dithiolanes Phosphorothiolate Iprobenfos 6
F2
Phospholipid biosynthesis, methyltransferase
Phosphorothiolates & Dithiolanes Phosphorothiolate Pyrazophos 6
F3
Lipid peroxidation (proposed)
AH-fungicides (Aromatic Hydrocarbons) & Heteroaromatics 1,2,4-thiadiazole Etridiazole Resistance known in some fungi. Low to medium risk. Cross resistance patterns complex due to different activity spectra. 14
F3
Lipid peroxidation (proposed)
AH-fungicides (Aromatic Hydrocarbons) & Heteroaromatics Aromatic hydrocarbon Biphenyl 14
F3
Lipid peroxidation (proposed)
AH-fungicides (Aromatic Hydrocarbons) & Heteroaromatics Aromatic hydrocarbon Dicloran 14
F3
Lipid peroxidation (proposed)
AH-fungicides (Aromatic Hydrocarbons) & Heteroaromatics Aromatic hydrocarbon Quintozene 14
F3
Lipid peroxidation (proposed)
AH-fungicides (Aromatic Hydrocarbons) & Heteroaromatics Aromatic hydrocarbon Tecnazene 14
F3
Lipid peroxidation (proposed)
AH-fungicides (Aromatic Hydrocarbons) & Heteroaromatics Aromatic hydrocarbon Tolclofos-methyl 14
F4
Cell membrane permeability, fatty acids (proposed)
Carbamates Carbamate Butacarb Multi-site inhibitors, systemic. No resistance detected to date. Low to medium risk. Resistance management required. 28
F4
Cell membrane permeability, fatty acids (proposed)
Carbamates Carbamate Propamocarb 28
F4
Cell membrane permeability, fatty acids (proposed)
Carbamates Carbamate Propamocarb hydrochloride 28
F4
Cell membrane permeability, fatty acids (proposed)
Carbamates Carbamate Prothiocarb 28
F6
Microbial disrupters of pathogen cell membranes
Microbial (Bacillus sp.) Bacterial fungicide Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum strain D747 Resistance not known. Induction of host plant defence described as additional mode of action for strain FZB24 44
F6
Microbial disrupters of pathogen cell membranes
Microbial (Bacillus sp.) Bacterial fungicide Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808 44
F6
Microbial disrupters of pathogen cell membranes
Microbial (Bacillus sp.) Bacterial fungicide Bacillus subtilis 44
G: sterol biosynthesis in membranes G1
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51)
DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Imidazole Imazalil There are great differences in the activity spectra of the different DMI fungicides. Resistance is known in various fungal species. Several resistance mechanisms are known incl. target site mutations in cyp51 (erg 11) gene, e.g. V136A, Y137F, A379G, I381V; cyp51 promotor; ABC transporters and others. Generally wise to accept that cross resistance is present between DMI fungicides active against the same fungus. DMI fungicides are Sterol Biosynthesis Inhibitors (SBIs), but show no cross resistance to other SBI classes. Medium risk. 3
G1
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51)
DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Imidazole Oxpoconazole 3
G1
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51)
DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Imidazole Pefurazoate 3
G1
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51)
DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Imidazole Prochloraz 3
G1
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51)
DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Imidazole Prochloraz-manganese 3
G1
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51)
DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Imidazole Triflumizole 3
G1
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51)
DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Piperazine Triforine 3
G1
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51)
DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Pyridine Pyridinitrile 3
G1
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51)
DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Pyridine Pyrifenox 3
G1
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51)
DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Pyrimidine Fenarimol 3
G1
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51)
DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Pyrimidine Nuarimol 3
G1
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51)
DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Pyrimidine Triarimol 3
G1
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51)
DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Azaconazole 3
G1
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51)
DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Bitertanol 3
G1
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51)
DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Bromuconazole 3
G1
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51)
DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Cyproconazole 3
G1
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51)
DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Diclobutrazol 3
G1
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51)
DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Difenoconazole 3
G1
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51)
DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Diniconazole 3
G1
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51)
DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Epoxiconazole 3
G1
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51)
DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Etaconazole 3
G1
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51)
DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Fenbuconazole 3
G1
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51)
DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Fluotrimazole 3
G1
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51)
DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Fluquinconazole 3
G1
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51)
DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Flusilazole 3
G1
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51)
DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Flutriafol 3
G1
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51)
DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Hexaconazole 3
G1
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51)
DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Imibenconazole 3
G1
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51)
DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Ipconazole 3
G1
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51)
DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Metconazole 3
G1
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51)
DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Myclobutanil 3
G1
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51)
DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Penconazole 3
G1
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51)
DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Propiconazole 3
G1
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51)
DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Simeconazole 3
G1
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51)
DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Tebuconazole 3
G1
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51)
DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Tetraconazole 3
G1
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51)
DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Triadimefon 3
G1
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51)
DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Triadimenol 3
G1
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51)
DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Triticonazole 3
G1
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51)
DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazole Uniconazole 3
G1
C14-demethylase in sterol biosynthesis (erg11/cpy51)
DMI-fungicides (DeMethylation Inhibitors) (SBI: Class I) Triazolinthione Prothioconazole 3
G2
^14 -reductase and ^8-^7- isomerase in sterol biosynthesis (erg24, erg2)
Amines ("Morpholines") (SBI: Class II) Morpholine Dodemorph Decreased sensitivity for powdery mildews. Cross resistance within the group generally found but not to other SBI classes. Low to medium risk. 5
G2
^14 -reductase and ^8-^7- isomerase in sterol biosynthesis (erg24, erg2)
Amines ("Morpholines") (SBI: Class II) Morpholine Fenpropimorph 5
G2
^14 -reductase and ^8-^7- isomerase in sterol biosynthesis (erg24, erg2)
Amines ("Morpholines") (SBI: Class II) Morpholine Tridemorph 5
G2
^14 -reductase and ^8-^7- isomerase in sterol biosynthesis (erg24, erg2)
Amines ("Morpholines") (SBI: Class II) Piperidine Fenpropidin 5
G2
^14 -reductase and ^8-^7- isomerase in sterol biosynthesis (erg24, erg2)
Amines ("Morpholines") (SBI: Class II) Piperidine Piperalin 5
G2
^14 -reductase and ^8-^7- isomerase in sterol biosynthesis (erg24, erg2)
Amines ("Morpholines") (SBI: Class II) Spiroketalamine Spiroxamine 5
G3
3-keto reductase, C4-demethylation (erg27)
Hydroxyanilides and amino-pyrazolinones (SBI: Class III) Amino-pyrazolinone Fenpyrazamine Low to medium risk. Resistance management required. 17
G3
3-keto reductase, C4-demethylation (erg27)
Hydroxyanilides and amino-pyrazolinones (SBI: Class III) Hydroxyanilide Fenhexamid 17
G4
Squalene-epoxidase in sterol biosynthesis (erg1)
Thiocarbamates & Allylamines (SBI class IV) Allylamine Naftifine Resistance not known in thiocarbamates. Pyributicarb has fungicidal and herbicidal activity in thiocarbamates. Allylamines are medical fungicides. 18
G4
Squalene-epoxidase in sterol biosynthesis (erg1)
Thiocarbamates & Allylamines (SBI class IV) Allylamine Terbinafine 18
G4
Squalene-epoxidase in sterol biosynthesis (erg1)
Thiocarbamates & Allylamines (SBI class IV) Thiocarbamate Pyributicarb 18
H: cell wall biosynthesis H3
Trehalase and inositol-biosynthesis
Glucopyranosyl antibiotic Glucopyranosyl antibiotic Validamycin Resistance not known. Induction of host plant defence claimed as additional MoA. 26
H4
Chitin synthase
Polyoxins Peptidyl pyrimidine nucleoside Polyoxins Resistance known. Medium risk. Resistance management required. 19
H5
Cellulose synthase
CAA-fungicides (Carboxylic acid amides) Cinnamic acid amide Dimethomorph Resistance known in Plasmopara viticola but not in Phytophthora infestans. Cross resistance between all members of the CAA group. Low to medium risk. 40
H5
Cellulose synthase
CAA-fungicides (Carboxylic acid amides) Cinnamic acid amide Flumorph 40
H5
Cellulose synthase
CAA-fungicides (Carboxylic acid amides) Mandelic acid amide Mandipropamid 40
H5
Cellulose synthase
CAA-fungicides (Carboxylic acid amides) Valinamide carbamate Benthiavalicarb-isopropyl 40
H5
Cellulose synthase
CAA-fungicides (Carboxylic acid amides) Valinamide carbamate Iprovalicarb 40
H5
Cellulose synthase
CAA-fungicides (Carboxylic acid amides) Valinamide carbamate Valifenalate 40
I: melanin synthesis in cell wall I1
Reductase in melanin biosynthesis
MBI-R (Melanin Biosynthesis Inhibitors - Reductase) Isobenzo-furanone Phthalide Resistance not known 16.1
I1
Reductase in melanin biosynthesis
MBI-R (Melanin Biosynthesis Inhibitors - Reductase) Pyrrolo-quinolinone Pyroquilon 16.1
I1
Reductase in melanin biosynthesis
MBI-R (Melanin Biosynthesis Inhibitors - Reductase) Triazolobenzothiazole Tricyclazole 16.1
I2
Dehydratase in melanin biosynthesis
MBI-D (Melanin Biosynthesis Inhibitors - Dehydratase) Carboxamide Diclocymet Resistance known. Medium risk. Resistance management required. 16.2
I2
Dehydratase in melanin biosynthesis
MBI-D (Melanin Biosynthesis Inhibitors - Dehydratase) Cyclopropane-carboxamide Carpropamid 16.2
I2
Dehydratase in melanin biosynthesis
MBI-D (Melanin Biosynthesis Inhibitors - Dehydratase) Propionamide Fenoxanil 16.2
Multi-site contact activity M1
Multi-site contact activity
Inorganics - copper (different salts) Copper Bordeaux mixture Generally considered as a low risk group without any signs of resistance developing to the fungicides M1
M1
Multi-site contact activity
Inorganics - copper (different salts) Copper Copper hydroxide M1
M1
Multi-site contact activity
Inorganics - copper (different salts) Copper Copper oxychloride M1
M1
Multi-site contact activity
Inorganics - copper (different salts) Copper Copper sulphate M1
M1
Multi-site contact activity
Inorganics - copper (different salts) Copper Cupric ammonium carbonate M1
M1
Multi-site contact activity
Inorganics - copper (different salts) Copper Cuprous oxide M1
M1
Multi-site contact activity
Inorganics - copper (different salts) Copper Oxine-copper M1
M2
Multi-site contact activity
Inorganics - suphur Inorganic Calcium polysulphide Generally considered as a low risk group without any signs of resistance developing to the fungicides M2
M2
Multi-site contact activity
Inorganics - suphur Sulphur Sulphur M2
M3
Multi-site contact activity
Dithiocarbamates and relatives Dithiocarbamate Cufraneb Generally considered as a low risk group without any signs of resistance developing to the fungicides M3
M3
Multi-site contact activity
Dithiocarbamates and relatives Dithiocarbamate Dicamate M3
M3
Multi-site contact activity
Dithiocarbamates and relatives Dithiocarbamate Ferbam M3
M3
Multi-site contact activity
Dithiocarbamates and relatives Dithiocarbamate Mancozeb M3
M3
Multi-site contact activity
Dithiocarbamates and relatives Dithiocarbamate Maneb M3
M3
Multi-site contact activity
Dithiocarbamates and relatives Dithiocarbamate Nabam M3
M3
Multi-site contact activity
Dithiocarbamates and relatives Dithiocarbamate Propineb M3
M3
Multi-site contact activity
Dithiocarbamates and relatives Dithiocarbamate Tecoram M3
M3
Multi-site contact activity
Dithiocarbamates and relatives Dithiocarbamate Thiram M3
M3
Multi-site contact activity
Dithiocarbamates and relatives Dithiocarbamate Zineb M3
M3
Multi-site contact activity
Dithiocarbamates and relatives Dithiocarbamate Ziram M3
M3
Multi-site contact activity
Dithiocarbamates and relatives See: Zineb-ethylene thiuram disulphide adduct Metiram M3
M4
Multi-site contact activity
Phthalimides Phthalimide Captafol Generally considered as a low risk group without any signs of resistance developing to the fungicides M4
M4
Multi-site contact activity
Phthalimides Phthalimide Captan M4
M4
Multi-site contact activity
Phthalimides Phthalimide Folpet M4
M5
Multi-site contact activity
Chloronitriles (phthalonitriles) Phthalonitrile Chlorothalonil Generally considered as a low risk group without any signs of resistance developing to the fungicides M5
M6
Multi-site contact activity
Sulphamides Sulfamide Dichlofluanid Generally considered as a low risk group without any signs of resistance developing to the fungicides M6
M6
Multi-site contact activity
Sulphamides Sulfamide Tolylfluanid M6
M7
Multi-site contact activity
Bis-guanidines Guanidine Guazatine Generally considered as a low risk group without any signs of resistance developing to the fungicides M7
M7
Multi-site contact activity
Bis-guanidines Guanidine Iminoctadine M7
M8
Multi-site contact activity
Triazines Triazine Anilazine Generally considered as a low risk group without any signs of resistance developing to the fungicides M8
M9
Multi-site contact activity
Quinones (anthraquinones) Quinone Dithianon Generally considered as a low risk group without any signs of resistance developing to the fungicides M9
M10
Multi-site contact activity
Quinoxalines Quinoxaline Chlorquinox Generally considered as a low risk group without any signs of resistance developing to the fungicides M10
M10
Multi-site contact activity
Quinoxalines Quinoxaline Quinomethionate M10
M11
Multi-site contact activity
Maleimides Maleimide Fluoroimide Generally considered as a low risk group without any signs of resistance developing to the fungicides M11
Not classified NC
Unknown
Diverse: mineral and organic oils, bicarbonates, material of biological origin Inorganic Potassium hydrogen carbonate Resistance not known NC
P: host plant defence induction P1
Salicylic acid pathway
Benzo-thiadiazole BTH Benzothiadiazole Acibenzolar-S-methyl Resistance not known P1
P2
Unknown
Benzisothiazoles Benzisothiazole Probenazole Resistance not known P2
P3
Unknown
Thiadiazole-carboxamides Thiadiazole carboxamide Isotianil Resistance not known P3
P3
Unknown
Thiadiazole-carboxamides Thiadiazole carboxamide Tiadinil P3
P4
Unknown
Natural compound: polysaccharides - laminarins Polysaccharide Laminarin Resistance not known P4
Unknown mode of action U27
Unknown
Cyanoacetamide-oximes Cyanoacetamide oxime Cymoxanil Resistance claims described. Low to medium risk. Resistance management required. 27
U33
Unknown
Phosphonates Ethyl phosphonate Fosetyl-aluminium Few resistance cases reported in few pathogens. Low risk 33
U33
Unknown
Phosphonates Inorganic Phosphorous acid and salts 33
U34
Unknown
Phthalamic acids Phthalamic acid Tecloftalam Mode of action generally not known. Use over several years has not revealed major resistance problems. Risk assumed to be low. Resistance not known. 34
U35
Unknown
Benzotriazines Benzotriazine Triazoxide Mode of action generally not known. Use over several years has not revealed major resistance problems. Risk assumed to be low. Resistance not known. 35
U36
Unknown
Benzene-sulfonamides Benzene-sulfonamide Flusulfamide Mode of action generally not known. Use over several years has not revealed major resistance problems. Risk assumed to be low. Resistance not known. 36
U37
Unknown
Pyridazinones Pyridazinone Diclomezine Mode of action generally not known. Use over several years has not revealed major resistance problems. Risk assumed to be low. Resistance not known. 37
U42
Unknown
Thiocarbamates Thiocarbamate Methasulfocarb Mode of action generally not known. Use over several years has not revealed major resistance problems. Risk assumed to be low. Resistance not known. 42
U6
Unknown
Phenyl-acetamide Formamide Chloraniformethan Resistance in Sphaerotheca. Resistance management required. U6
U6
Unknown
Phenyl-acetamide Phenyl-acetamide Cyflufenamid U6
U8
Actin disruption (proposed)
Aryl-phenyl-ketones Benzophenone Metrafenone Less sensitive isolates detected in wheat powdery mildew. Medium risk. Resistance management required. U8
U8
Actin disruption (proposed)
Aryl-phenyl-ketones Benzoylpyridine Pyriofenone U8
U12
Cell membrane disruption (proposed)
Guanidines Guanidine Dodine Resistance known in Venturia inaequalis. Low to medium risk. Resistance management recommended. U12
U13
Unknown
Thiazolidines Cyano-methylene-thiazolidine Flutianil Resistance not known U13
U14
Unknown
Pyrimidinone-hydrazones Pyrimidinone-hydrazone Ferimzone Resistance not known. Reclassified from C5 in 2012 U14

Codes and comments courtesy of FRAC.

Chemical groupings follow classification as used in the Pesticide Manual 14th Edition.

 
© Crown Copyright The Food and Environment Research Agency 2009